Each round associated with the IBBSS utilized respondent sampling that is driven towards the concealed nature of MSM and so enables contrast between and across rounds. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is described at length in past studies 22, 23. Quickly, RDS is really a modified chain referral non-random sampling technique of recruitment that adjusts for the non-randomness utilizing a mathematical model that loads each sample recruited 23. Inclusion criteria ended up being male aged 16 years and above with a brief history of oral and/or anal contact that is sexual another guy into the a few months ahead of the study. Known MSM, designated as “seeds” began the chain for the recommendation use and network vouchers to recruit their peers in to the study. Ten seeds had been selected for every circular and seeds had been diversified by age, academic status and socioeconomic status. To prevent an over-representation of MSM with comparable characteristics, vouchers limited by three per recruit was utilized 23, 24. In addition, in order to prevent perform enrollment, only 1 screener had been utilized, only 1 individual had been authorized to reimburse MSM that has effectively recruited their peers and just one location had been utilized. Each voucher ended up being redeemable and yielded N500 approx. $3 USD as a motivation for participating, with an extra N500 directed at a recruit for every effective participant that is additional. Total payment ended up being limited by a compensation that is maximum of approximately $12 USD. Test size when it comes to 2007 IBBSS ended up being believed centered on an thought HIV prevalence of 15%, a design effectation of 2.0 and amount of precision of 0.05. When it comes to 2010 and 2014 IBBSS, test size had been predicted to detect a 10% vary from the subsequent round.
Structured close-ended interviewer administered questionnaires elicited information on socio-demographic traits, form of intercourse lovers and intimate risk habits. Interviews had been carried out in MSM friendly companies identified in each one of the study states. Transactional sex ended up being evaluated both with feminine and partners that are male. Kind of rectal intercourse practiced ended up being classified as “insertive penile sex” or penile that is“receptive” into the past a few months. HIV danger perception had been evaluated by asking MSM “do you are experiencing you will be prone to illness with HIV? ” with reaction choices being “yes or no”. Consistent condom use with intimate lovers during transactional and non-transactional intercourse had been evaluated by asking the concerns “how frequently did you or your male partner make use of condom each time you had intercourse within the last few 6 months? ” while condom usage at final sex ended up being examined by the concern “the last time you’d rectal intercourse do you or your partner work with a condom? ”. Transactional sex ended up being examined by asking “have you received cash or present in exchange for intercourse within the last a few months? ” Penned consent had been acquired from all individuals both for behavioural and biological aspects of the survey.
Detection of HIV during all of the studies ended up being regularly carried out by quick test making use of blood that is whole obtained from a little finger prick. On the basis of the HIV that is national testing, a synchronous algorithm of Determine (Alere health https://bestrussianbrides.net, United States Of America) and Unigold (Trinity Biotech, Plc, Bray, Ireland) was utilized to recognize HIV sero-positivity while status of discordant tests had been verified if you use Stat Pak (Chembio Diagnostic Systems, New York, United States Of America).
Information administration and analysis
Data from each research state had been entered centrally utilizing CS professional variation 3.2 and 25% of questionnaires underwent double-data entry to make sure information quality. Behavioural and biological information had been connected by research unique recognition quantity for every single participant. Information from each round had been merged and analyzed STATA that is using 14.0 Corporation). Descriptive statistics of demographic, behavioural, and variables that are biological carried out. The Cochran-Armitage Chi Square trend test had been utilized to compare differences when considering categorical factors across various rounds of IBBSS, although the Kruskal-Wallis test had been utilized to compare variations in continuous factors across various rounds of IBBSS. To determine associations between HIV and predictor factors (Tables), bivariate logistic regression analysis had been carried out with p value ?0•2 designated as the cutoff for addition in multivariate logistic regression models. Factors were retained should they attained a p value ?0•05 in the multivariate analysis. The predictor factors had been predicated on information from literary works that revealed a link involving the factors and HIV.
Table 1 highlights the sociodemographic information of MSM over the three rounds for the IBBSS. A complete of 897, 1545 and 3611 MSM had been surveyed in 2007, 2010 and 2014 correspondingly. A number of the participants had been aged 20–24 years in 2007 (61%) and 2014 (46%), whilst in 2010, almost half (47%) for the participants had been 25 years or older. Over 85% associated with the participants had never ever hitched in each round for the study. Greater part of the participants had finished at the very least secondary degree training, and also this ended up being greatest among participants in 2007 with 63per cent followed closely by participants in 2014 (55%).
Intimate danger Behaviours
The median amount of insertive anal lovers ended up being constant between 2007 and 2010 with about 50% associated with participants insertive that is reporting sex (IAS) with at the least two lovers interquartile range (IQR 1–4) within the last few a few months. For receptive anal sex (RAS), a median of two partners that are sexual reported in 2007 whilst it had been one partner both in 2010 and 2014. Overall, about a third had engaged in transactional intercourse in 2007 (95% confidence period (CI): 30–36%) and 2014 (32–35%), although it had been about two-fifths this season (36–41%). Consistent condom use, whenever intercourse ended up being offered increased steadily from 35% (27–44%) to 79per cent (74–83%) between 2007 and 2014. Likewise, constant condom use within days gone by half a year ahead of the study during compensated intimate encounters increased from 35% (30–41%) in 2007 to 61percent (58–64%) in 2014. For non-commercial lovers, constant condom usage increased from 32per cent (29–36%) in 2007 to 51percent (49–53%) in 2014. For self-reported experiences of sexually transmitted illness (STI), there was clearly a growth from 7% (5–9%) in 2007 to 15per cent (13–17%) this season and 19per cent (17–20%) in 2014.